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Acid Rain:
Are the Problems Solved?

Sponsored by the
Center for Environmental Information, Inc.
May 2 - 3, 2001
Holiday Inn Capital, Washington, D.C.

For more information call CEI at: (585) 262-2870

Index

Purpose

Program

Speaker Biographies and Abstracts

Mary C. Barber

Chris Bernabo

Rona Birnbaum

Tamara Blett

Van Bowersox

Arthur J. Bulger Jr.

Dallas Burtraw

Don Campbell

Ellis Cowling

Charles T. Driscoll

Guy Fenech

James N. Galloway

Robert Howarth

John D. Kinsman

Douglas Knauer

Greg Lawrence

Morton Lippmann

Brian McLean

John M. McManus

Bernard C. Melewski

Dr. Paulette Middleton

Jeremy Platt

Richard Poirot

Fred Stoss

Mary F. Striegel

Brent Takemoto

Elizabeth Thorndike

Michael Uhart

Richard A. Valentinetti

Lunch and Guest Speaker

Representative Sherwood L. Boehlert

Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton

Senator Charles E. Schumer

Representative John E. Sweeney

Steering Committee

Funding Co-Sponsors

Cooperating Co-Sponsors

Purpose (top)

Passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments incorporated a market-based emissions trading program to reduce annual emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from utilities burning fossil fuels. The program has been effective in reducing emissions at costs below what was expected. Yet current scientific findings and assessments make clear that the problems resulting from acid deposition have not been resolved; and that reductions of the serious on-going ecological and economic impacts of acid deposition-nationwide-require new policy initiatives.

This conference will assemble the most current information on the scientific, economic, and policy aspects of acid deposition; inform decision makers about the linkages between acid deposition and hazardous air pollutants, fine particles, ozone, eutrophication, and climate change; and describe the ecological and economic benefits and the compliance costs of reduced emissions to combat adverse impacts of acid deposition on the nation's lakes, streams, fisheries, soils, forests, public health, materials and cultural resources.

Program (top)

Wednesday, May 2

8:00 a.m. Registration, Continental Breakfast

9:00 Welcome

9:05 Session I. Addressing the Acid Rain Problem-Twenty Years in Retrospect.

10:15 Break

10:45 Session II. Research And Analysis: What the Reports Say.

  • Chair: Bernard Melewski - Adirondack Council
  • Acid Rain Revisited: Sources, Effects and Recovery in the Northeatern U.S.
  • National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Analysis
  • Beyond Title IV: Perspectives on Additional Reductions

12:00 Noon Lunch

1:30 Session III. Acid Rain Impacts: State of the Science.

  • Chair: Mary Barber - Ecological Society of America
  • Sources and receptors: monitoring the data
  • Freshwater aquatic systems
  • Coastal ecosystems

3:00 Break

3:30 Session III. (Continued.)

  • Forests and terrestrial systems
  • Human health
  • Materials and cultural resources

5:00 p.m. Adjourn, Reception (Cash Bar)

7:30 p.m. Special Program: Acid Rain Information Resources

  • Review significant printed matter, abstracting and indexing services, and Internet resources related to acid rain.

Thursday, May 3

8:00 a.m. Registration Continental Breakfast

9:00 Session IV. Acid Rain Linkages: Ozone, Hazardous Air Pollutants, Particulate Matter, Eutrophication, and Climate Change.

10:00 Break

10:30 Session V. North American Regional Impacts Panel.

12:00 Noon Lunch

1:30 Session VI. Economics of Acid Rain

2:45 Guest Speaker

3:30 Session VII. Hearing of the House Science Committee - Held in the Rayburn Bldg

Speaker Biographies and Abstracts (top)

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Mary C. Barber (program)

Mary C. Barber is the Director of the Sustainable Biosphere Initiative (SBI) and Science Programs for the Ecological Society of America (ESA). The SBI focuses on issues of ecosystem sustainability, global change and biodiversity. Since coming to ESA in 1994, Barber has undertaken a range of activities that use ecological information to inform the public debate on issues as diverse as land use planning, ecosystem services, habitat classification, and ecological forecasting.

Prior to her current position she was Senior Environmental Scientist with Science and Policy Associates, Inc., and has held positions with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Oceanic Society, and the National Science Foundation.

Other activities include: Women in Science and Engineering, Association of Women in Science, and Women's Aquatic Network.

She received her B.A. from Vassar College and her Ph.D. in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology from Johns Hopkins University.

Chris Bernabo (program)

Chris was the founding Director of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) from 1980 to 1985. He is now President of Collaborative Solutions, which designs and implements policy-relevant programs using multi-stakeholder approaches.

His other experience in linking science to decision-makers' needs includes serving as: Director - RAND Environmental Science and Policy Center, President - Science and Policy Associates, Inc., Senior Policy Analyst _ NOAA, NRC Research Fellow on Climate Change, and Congressional Science Fellow - House Science Committee.

Chris has a Ph.D. in Earth Sciences from Brown University.

Rona Birnbaum (program)

Rona Birnbaum is Chief of the Assessment and Communications Branch in the Office of Atmospheric Program's Clean Air Markets Division. She has been with the Program since 1991, soon after the Acid Rain Program was created. Throughout her time in the Air Office, Rona has focused on the science-policy interface relating to atmospheric deposition, program assessment and communication of results. Much of Rona's work involves linking research and environmental monitoring to air pollution policies such as market-based mechanisms. She has also been providing support to the US-Canada Air Quality Agreement since 1991. Rona has been with the EPA for over 14 years. She holds a Masters Degree in Environmental and Natural Resource Policy from George Washington University.

Abstract: Beyond Title IV: Perspectives on Additional Reductions

Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (Acid Rain Program) has been a success in many key respects. It has achieved emission reductions on time (even early), regional reductions in acid deposition, significant health benefits to society, and demonstrated a strong market for sulfur dioxide allowances and compliance with the program at a fraction of what was earlier estimated. So what's the problem? While evidence of the success of the Acid Rain Program grows, so does evidence that sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the primary precursors to acid deposition, continue to pose risks to the environment and human health. The scientific literature is filled with research results pointing to continued or even growing problems in scientific areas that were not well developed by the late 1980s, when acid rain legislation was debated, including watershed nitrogen saturation and forest soil effects. Similarly, tremendous milestones have been achieved with respect to research on health effects of fine particles. Although progress has been made through the Acid Rain Program in reducing sulfur deposition, there is little to no observed trend in nitrogen deposition. Likewise, there are mixed trends observed in surface water chemistry data. Various publications by the research community and a recent GAO report document this.

To address some of these issues and better understand the environmental implications of potential policy changes, the EPA performed some analyses of projected air quality and ecological impacts of additional emission reductions beyond Title IV.

Tamara Blett (program)

Tamara joined the National Park Service as an Ecologist in the Air Resources Division in October 2000. She focuses on the protection of natural resources from the effects of air pollution by developing, synthesizing and interpreting research and monitoring information on ecological effects and applying these analyses to air quality policy issues.

Previously Tamara was an Air Resource Management Specialist with the Rocky Mountain Region of the USDA Forest Service, an Ecologist with the USDA Forest Service Riverside Forest and Range Experiment Station in California, and a researcher studying physiological plant ecology projects for UCLA and U.C. Irving.

Tamara has a B.S. degree in biology from U.C. Irvine and a M.S. degree in Fire Ecology from Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado.

Van Bowersox (program)

Van Bowersox is Coordinator of the U.S. National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), a multi-agency program that provides regional and national-scale data and information on the amounts, temporal trends, and geographic distribution of chemical deposition by precipitation. The NADP Program Office is located at the Illinois State Water Survey, which is affiliated with the University of Illinois. Van joined the Illinois State Water Survey in 1979 and has been a Senior Scientist since 1990. His research interests are in the scavenging of gases and particles from the atmosphere by precipitation and in understanding the relationships between pollutant sources and deposition. Van has a M.S. in Meteorology and a B.S. in Chemistry from Penn State Univ.

Abstract: Sources and Rceptors - Monitoring the Data

Effective 1 January 1995, Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) set sulfur dioxide emissions allowances on 110 coal-fired electric utility plants, all but one of which are located in states east of or bordering the Mississippi River. A step-wise decrease of sulfur dioxide emissions occurred in 1995, resulting in a reduction of more than two million tons per year of sulfur dioxide emitted by sources in the eastern United States. Sulfate concentrations in precipitation, measured by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program's National Trends Network, decreased by 10% to 25% over a large area of the eastern United States downwind of these sources. Similar decreases occurred in the amount of sulfate deposited by precipitation and in precipitation acidity. Data from the National Trends Network make it possible to conclude that there were significant declines in acidic deposition in many parts of the eastern United States, following implementation of this first Phase of Title IV of the 1990 CAAA.

Arthur J. Bulger Jr. (program)

Arthur J. Bulger earned his BA at Harvard University and his Ph.D. in Zoology (fish Ecology and Physiology) at the University of Connecticut. He works in the Department of Environmental Sciences of the University of Virginia as a Fish Ecologist/Physiologist, studying problems relating to environmental biology of fishes. He is one of the nation's leading experts on acid rain effects on fish.

Bulger has collaborated on many projects related to acid deposition with a number of organizations including: the Hubbard Brook Research Foundation, the National Park Service, the US Geological Survey, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the Southern Appalachian Mountain Initiative, and Trout Unlimited. He was also the recipient of a Senior Scientist Research Fellowship from the Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Technical Research

Abstract: Freshwater Aquatic Systems

The ecological consequences of acid deposition are clearest for aquatic ecosystems. Acidification causes declines in abundance and species richness in zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fish. High concentrations of both hydrogen ion (measured by low pH) and dissolved aluminum (mobilized by acidity) are directly toxic to fish, through mechanisms which now are clearly understood. Sublethal effects include reduction in body mass; lethal effects eliminate the most sensitive species first, producing regional patterns of declining species richness with declining pH.

Recent reductions in S emissions mandated by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAA) of 1990 will not produce recovery in the Northeastern US, and will allow continued biodiversity loss in the Southeastern US. As much as one-third of streams in Virginia, and as much as one-quarter of the lakes in the Adirondacks, may have already been rendered unsuitable by acidification for brook trout, the region's most acid-tolerant species. Continued erosion of water quality and biodiversity is clearly not sustainable. The need to resolve the problem of acid deposition is made more apparent by the linkages between acid deposition and many other environmental problems, such as coastal eutrophication (atmospheric deposition of N is important in coastal waters); mercury intoxication (surface water acidification increases mercury accumulation in fish); decreased visibility (sulfate aerosols are an important component of atmospheric particulates which decrease visibility); and tropospheric ozone and climate change in complex ways.

Dallas Burtraw (program)

Dallas Burtraw is a Senior Fellow at Resources for the Future, a non-profit, non-partisan research institute that specializes in environmental, energy and natural resource economics. His research interests include the restructuring of the electric utility market, the social costs of environmental pollution, and benefit-cost analyses of environmental regulation, and the design of incentive-based environmental policies.

Recently, Burtraw has investigated the effects on electric utilities of the sulfur dioxide emissions-permit trading program legislated under the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. He has also helped to evaluate benefits of emission reductions resulting from the 1990 Amendments.

Current projects: Integrated Approaches to Pollutant Control in the Electricity Sector; and the Valuation of Natural Resource Improvements in the Adirondacks

Burtraw has a Ph.D. in economics, Master in public policy, University of Michigan

Abstract: Economic Benefits of Controls

The lion's share of quantified economic benefits from reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides mandated under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments result from reduced risk of premature mortality. The benefits measure several times the costs of the program. Significant quantifiable benefits also are estimated for improvements in health morbidity, recreational and residential visibility. "Use value" benefits associated with environmental improvements are relatively small. Areas that were the focus of attention in the 1980s still have not been modeled comprehensively. Value of information analysis places the highest value on research in this area, especially "nonuse" values for effects to soils, forests and aquatic systems, as well as health morbidity. The geographic trading of emission allowances has not undercut benefits and it may have increased them slightly.

Don Campbell (program)

Don Campbell is a research hydrologist with the US Geological Survey in Denver, Colorado. He received an undergraduate degree in Biology at Penn State, and worked at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science for 3 years. He moved west for graduate studies in watershed science at Colorado State University, and has been studying the hydrology and biogeochemistry of mountain lakes and streams for 18 years with the USGS.

Abstract: Impacts of Acid Rain in the Intermountain/Western U.S.

Regional deposition trends in the Intermountain West over the past 15 years are similar to those in other regions of North America: sulfate deposition decreased, whereas nitrogen deposition increased or was unchanged. Nitrogen deposition contributes substantially to acidification and can cause other significant effects such as fertilization of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Many high-elevation ecosystems are sensitive to acidification, and trends in their surface-water chemistry often reflect changes in deposition. However, long-term monitoring indicates that few if any lakes or streams in the region have been chronically acidified as a result of atmospheric deposition. Recent studies indicate that ephemeral ponds may be even more sensitive to episodic acidification than lakes and streams. Ongoing monitoring and research is directed toward better understanding ecosystem responses to atmospheric deposition, refining estimates of critical loads, and determining cost-effective means of protecting sensitive natural resources.

Ellis Cowling (program)

Ellis Cowling is a forest biologist at North Carolina State University who became a world leader in air pollution research. Beginning in 1975, he led a group of 200 scientists in creating the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP). This network measures the amounts of nutrients and injurious substances transferred in rain and snow from the atmosphere to forest and agricultural land and surface waters at 200 research sites throughout the US.

Cowling has two earned Ph.D degrees _ one from the University of Wisconsin and the other from the University of Uppsala in Sweden. He has served as major professor for 66 graduate and postdoctoral students at Yale and at NC State Universities. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1973.

Abstract: Impacts Of Air Pollutants in the Southeastern United States

Acid rain, ground-level ozone, regional haze, particulate matter, eutrophication, and climate change continue to be major matters of public worry and industrial concern in the southeastern United States. Although Los Angeles is famous for its historically high ozone concentrations, the Houston-Galveston area of Texas is now rivaling Los Angeles as the most remarkable place to observe rapid accumulation of ozone in the US today. Although air concentrations of sulfate aerosol are decreasing in most states in the eastern US, this is not true in the southern Appalachians and most notably not true within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Although the number of urban areas designated non-attainment for the 1-hour ozone standard has decreased in recent years, the total number of counties included within ozone non-attainment areas of the south will increase markedly as soon as the 8-hour standard for ozone is implemented. Many of these newly designated ozone non-attainment counties will be rural rather than urban in character. Although total emissions of sulfur oxides have decreased in most states east of the Mississippi River, emissions of nitrogen oxides have remained about the same or even increased. This difference is especially noteworthy in the southeastern states where emissions of ammonia from animal agriculture also have increased substantially in recent years. The visual range over scenic vistas has decreased in most Class I areas in the southern Appalachians. Although a trend of decreasing ozone concentrations has occurred in the US as a whole, during the 10-year period from 1990-1999 ozone concentrations increased in the southeastern states — the 2nd highest daily maximum one-hour average ozone concentration increased by 13 percent and the 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour average increased by 17 percent. Eight of nine US National Parks showing increased ozone concentrations during 1990-1999 were located in southeastern states (AR, FL, KY, NC, SC, TX).

All these differences and trends provide substantial justification for continuing investments in research and pollution-management activities aimed at discovering and implementing cost-effective means for decreasing these impacts in the southeast.

Charles T. Driscoll (program)

Charles T. Driscoll is University Professor of Environmental Systems Engineering in the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Syracuse University. Driscoll has worked on the effects of acid rain and mercury in New York and New England since the mid 1970's. His research interests include the chemistry of soils and drainage waters , environmental modeling, and the long-term biogeochemical patterns in forest and aquatic ecosystems. Driscoll served as Chair of the Gordon Conference on Forested Catchments, was designated by the National Science Foundation as a Presidential Young Investigator and has been honored with the Syracuse University Chancellor's Citation of Academic Achievement. He holds a Ph.D. in Environmental Engineering from Cornell University.

Abstract: Acid Rain Revisited: Sources, Effects and Recovery in the Northeastern U.S.

Acid rain, or acidic deposition, originates from emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, largely derived from fossil fuel combustion, and from ammonia, largely released from agricultural activities. Effects of acidic deposition include: 1) accumulation of sulfur and nitrogen, depletion of exchangeable nutrient cations and mobilization of aluminum in soil, 2) stress to red spruce and sugar maple leading to death from climatic disturbance or insect defoliation, and 3) acidification of surface waters and decreases in species richness of aquatic biota. Since 1973 emissions of sulfur dioxide have declined about 35% due to controls on electric utilities. These reductions have decreased concentrations of sulfate in surface waters across the northeastern U.S., but with limited improvement in the acid-based status of surface waters. The computer model PnET-BGC is used to project how an acid impacted forest ecosystem might respond to proposed additional controls on emissions from electric utilities.

Guy Fenech (program)

Guy Fenech is Senior Science Advisor in the Science Assessment and Policy Integration Branch of Environment Canada. The Branch's main products are science assessments of major atmospheric issues such as "Acid Rain", "Smog" and Stratospheric Ozone". Guy Fenech directed the 1997 Canadian Acid Rain Assessment and he is currently setting up the science program to support the Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy. He has degrees in mathematics and meteorology.

Abstract: Impacts of Acid Rain in Canada

In October 1998, federal, provincial and territorial Energy and Environ ment Ministers signed The Canada-Wide Acid Rain Strategy for Post-2000. The primary long-term goal of The Strategy is "to meet the environmental threshold of critical loads for acid deposition across Canada". As steps towards the achievement of this goal, The Strategy calls for a number of actions, including:

  • establishing new SO2 emission reduction targets in eastern Canada;
  • pursuing further emission reduction commitments from the U.S.;
  • ensuring the adequacy of acid rain science and monitoring programs.

Since then, the provinces of Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick have announced their commitments for reducing further their emissions of SO2, and the US-Canada Air Quality Committee has recognized that the acid rain problem will not be solved unless more stringent emission control measures are adopted.

Meanwhile, preparations are under way to reassess acid rain impacts in Canada. Plans are to publish the next assessment report in 2004.

James N. Galloway (program)

James N. Galloway earned his BA from Whittier College with a double major in Chemistry and Biology. He was awarded his PhD from the University of California, San Diego in Chemistry and was a Postdoctoral Fellow at Cornell University.

He is currently Professor and Chair of the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of Virginia. His research is in the area of biogeochemistry and includes work on the natural and anthropogenic controls on chemical cycles at the watershed, regional and global scales. He is the author of over a hundred scientific papers. He is internationally recognized for his work on acid deposition effects on soils, waters and forests, watershed biogeochemistry and the influence of Asia on the global environment.

Abstract: Acid Rain Linkages: Ozone, Hazardous Air Pollutants, Particulate Matter, Eutrophication, and Climate Change - Overview of the Impacts

The combustion of fossil fuels has increased the acidity of the atmosphere and the input of acids into ecosystems. As a consequence, soils and waters with low buffering capacity have been acidified and organisms that live in acidified soils and waters have been damaged. Beginning in the 1960s, extensive research on the phenomena and effects of acid deposition began, starting first in Scandinavia and Europe, and then North America and other regions, most notably Asia. Our understanding of the acidification process has been substantially enhanced by these efforts. One of the major findings has been that the acid deposition consequences of S and N mobilization by fossil fuel combustion are but the first of a series of environmental responses to S and N accumulation in environmental reservoirs, and that food production also contributes to environmental acidification, as well as pre- and post-acidification effects.

This presentation will examine the pre- and post-acidification effects production (e.g., ecosystem fertilization, climate change, eutrophication, ozone) of S and N mobilization by energy and food. In addition to presenting an overview of these effects it will also speculate about what we might expect to see in the future, in North America and other regions of the world.

Robert Howarth (program)

Howarth has a B.S. in biology from Amherst College and a Ph.D. in oceanography issued jointly by MIT and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. He has been on the faculty at Cornell University since 1985, and has been the David R. Atkinson Professor of Ecology and Environmental Biology since 1993. He currently is a senior marine scientist and manager of the Oceans Program at Environmental Defense, and is an adjunct research scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA. Howarth has been co-chair of the International SCOPE Nitrogen Project since 1994 and has been Editor-in Chief of the journal Biogeochemistry since 1983. From 1998-2000, he chaired the Committee on Causes and Management of Coastal Eutrophication of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences.

Abstract: Beyond the Acid in Acid Rain: Nitrogen Deposition and Eutrophication of Coastal Marine Ecosystems

Seawater is well buffered, so the acid in acid precipitation causes no direct harm to coastal marine ecosystems. However, the nitrogen in acid rain causes eutrophication of coastal systems, leading to anoxic waters("dead zones"), more frequent harmful algal blooms, degradation and death of seagrass beds, and loss of biotic diversity. Nitrogen is now the largest pollution problem in the coastal water of the U.S., and over 60% of our coastal rivers and bays have been moderately to severely degraded. The sources of nitrogen to the coast vary among regions and sites, but atmospheric deposition of nitrogen onto the landscape _ with subsequent export to coastal waters _ is the single largest source in northeastern U.S.

John D. Kinsman (program)

John Kinsman is the Director, Air Quality Programs at the Edison Electric Institute in Washington, D.C.

Mr. Kinsman's environmental career has spanned 20 years, including the last 13 years at EEI, where he works on the issues of acid rain, ozone, particulate matter, regional haze, mercury and global climate change. He works with different constituencies to obtain reasonable environmental laws and regulation, and then assists the industry in compliance with laws and regulations. His degrees in environmental science are from the University of Virginia and George Mason University.

Douglas Knauer (program)

Douglas Knauer is the Section Chief of Environmental Contaminants Research for the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. He has been associated with acid rain research projects in Wisconsin since 1983. He was involved with a whole-lake acidification experiment at Little Rock Lake, an acid lake neutralization experiment at Max Lake, the development of an acid rain model through the Regional Integrated Lake/Watershed Acidification Study, and a long-term survey of acid sensitive lakes in northern Minnesota, Wisconsin and the upper peninsula of Michigan.

Since 1988, Knauer has participated in a variety of mercury studies ranging from the biogeochemical fate of mercury in the aquatic ecosystem of inland lakes, Lake Superior and the Florida Everglades to a mercury risk assessment of the common loon.

Abstract: The Recovery of Acid Rain Sensitive Aquatic Resources in the Upper Mid-West

In concert with a reduction in SO2 emissions over the past two decades, SO4 concentrations in acid-sensitive lakes in northern Wisconsin have dramatically declined, at rates up to 16 ueq/L-yr. In general, recovery of pH and acid neutralizing capacity has been slower, mainly because concentrations of major cations (Ca and Mg) have also declined. The rate and magnitude of the recovery response differs among lakes and appears related to local acid loading history, drought effects and lake DOC. Recovery has been strong in clear-water lakes, but slow to absent in stained lakes. In lakes with DOC shifts induced by climate, recovery rates appear accelerated above that expected from responses to decreased deposition alone. The continued decline in SO4 concentrations and increases in acid neutralizing capacity and pH suggest that the full extent of recovery has not yet been realized in Wisconsin lakes.

Greg Lawrence (program)

I began studying acid rain in 1980 when I began work on my M.S degree at the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry (completed in 1982). In 1987 I completed a Ph.D. in Civil Engineering at Syracuse University after studying the effects of acid rain and clearcutting on stream chemistry at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. After 3 years as a research professor at the University of Maine, I joined the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in Troy, New York, where I have continued my research on the effects of acid rain on soil and water chemistry. To date, I have published over 50 technical articles and reports related to acid rain.

Abstract: The Current Status of Acid Rain Effects on Forests and Terrestrial Systems

In the decade following passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the view that acid rain was primarily a surface water problem has been replaced by an understanding that changes in surface waters are a reflection of changes in watershed processes that connect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Acidic deposition has increased the leaching of calcium from the soil, which has lowered the ability of watersheds to neutralize acidity. Soil acidification leads to episodic acidification of lakes and streams, and impaired growth of red spruce and sugar maple trees.

Morton Lippmann (program)

Morton Lippmann holds a Bachelor of Chemical Engineering from the Cooper Union (1954), a master's degree in industrial hygiene from Harvard (1955) and a Ph.D. in environmental health sciences from NYU (1967). He is a diplomate of the American Board of Industrial Hygiene, with certification in the engineering aspects and comprehensive practice of industrial hygiene. He the recipient of numerous awards.

Lippmann is a Professor of Environmental Medicine at the New York University School of Medicine. He directs a research program on Human Exposure and Health Effects, and the EPA supported Particulate Matter Health Effects Research Center. His publications include 260 research and review papers in the scientific literature and two reference texts on environmental health science.

Abstract: Acid Rain - Ambient Air Acid And Human Health

The clearly identifiable human health effects of ambient air acidity follow their inhalation into the respiratory tract. In eastern North America, most of the acidity is associated with sulfuric acid aerosol, which is formed in the atmosphere as ultrafine particles (d < 0.1 µm) through the oxidation of sulfur dioxide emitted during fossil fuel combustion, and which is gradually agglomerated into fine particles (0.2 < d < 1.0 µm) and also neutralized to ammonium sulfate by reaction with ammonia gas, a product of anaerobic decay at ground level. Short-term peak exposures to acidic aerosols can cause asthma exacerbations and the lungs ability to clear itself of inhaled particles. Long-term chronic exposures are closely associated with premature mortality, increased rates of emergency department and hospital admissions, respiratory symptoms, and lost-time from work and school.

Brian Mclean (program)

Brian McLean is the Director of the Clean Air Markets Division, part of EPA's Office of Air and Radiation, which is best known for the development and use of the "cap and trade" emissions trading approach to pollution control. Presently, the Division is responsible for the management of trading programs to control emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOX) including the NOX Budget Program for the Northeast Ozone Transport Commission. Additionally, Mr. McLean is involved in efforts to develop emissions trading programs to address other U.S. and international pollution issues.

While with the EPA Mr. McLean has helped develop the Administration's acid rain legislative proposal which was enacted in 1990 as Title IV of the Clean Air Act, and was a principle negotiator of the 1991 U.S.- Canada Air Quality Accord.

Mr. McLean holds a Bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering from Lafayette College, a Master's degree in City and Regional Planning from Rutgers University, and a Doctorate in City Planning from the University of Pennsylvania.

Abstract: The Acid Rain Program, Overview and Lessons Learned

McLean will discuss the goals of the program, the mechanisms used to reach those goals (cap and trade, emissions averaging), the trends in emissions of SO2 and NOx, and changes in geographic deposition. He will also discuss the operation of the Acid Rain Program, give an SO2 market update and explain the expansion of cap and trade into addressing ozone transport. The presentation will conclude with an examination of what makes a cap and trade program successful and the prospects for expanded use of cap and trade.

John M. McManus (program)

John M. McManus is the Manager of Environmental Strategy & Compliance Planning for the American Electric Power Company located in Columbus, Ohio. In this position, Mr. McManus has responsibility for evaluating environmental issues that have the potential to affect the electric utility industry and formulating responses to such issues. In addition, he is the primary interface with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on matters related to compliance with the requirements of the acid rain control program for coal-fired units on the AEP system.

Mr. McManus has been with AEP since 1977. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Environmental Engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (1976) and is a registered Professional Engineer in the State of Ohio.

Abstract: Compliance Experience of Regulated Entities

Bernard C. Melewski (program)

Bernard C. Melewski has been Legislative Director of the Adirondack Council since 1990, directing the Council's legislative and public policy initiatives toward Adirondack Park protection. Mr. Melewski has been involved in most of the major environmental initiatives in New York in the last two decades. He is the former counsel to the State Commission On Solid And Hazardous Waste Management, and past executive director of the Environmental Planning Lobby ( now Environmental Advocates), a statewide advocacy organization.

Mr. Melewski participated in the drafting and passage of the first acid rain legislation in the country in 1984 and represented the Adirondack Council in successful negotiations with the US EPA in the revision of its acid rain regulations. He currently directs legislative efforts on acid rain in both the New York State Legislature and in Congress. He is a frequent guest speaker on the topic.

Paulette Middleton (program)

Paulette Middleton, Co-Director RAND Environment, has 25 years of experience as an atmospheric chemist, policy analyst and program director, applying cutting-edge research and strategic thinking to environmental policy making. Before coming to RAND in 1998, she worked at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the Atmospheric Sciences Research Center at the State University of New York at Albany and Science & Policy Associates, Inc. Currently she is also involved with the Global Emissions Inventory Activity Center, as chair of the Air Quality Modeling Subcommittee of the EPA Science Advisory Board, the Environmental Models Committee currently reviewing the National Air Toxics Assessment, and as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Air and Waste Management Association. Middleton has authored over 50 peer-reviewed articles.

She has a Ph.D. in Chemistry, University of Texas

Abstract: Overview of the Sources

Acid rain is one of many manifestations of how actions of society can have adverse effects on human health and welfare. The relationships among human activities as well as natural processes, chemical emissions, formation of other harmful chemicals from these emissions, and the effects of the chemical mix on various ecosystems, human health and materials are highly complex. Identifying the source magnitudes and spatial and temporal patterns for all of the key chemicals (i.e., sulfur and nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, ammonia, particulate matter, and other toxics) is an essential step in developing near and long term strategies for addressing multiple air quality concerns. To determine the most effective emissions management strategies, it also is essential to characterize chemical connections linking multiple sources to multiple chemicals to multiple impacts and the fundamental role of human behavior.

Jeremy Platt (program)

Mr. Platt manages research on power and fuel markets for EPRI (founded as the Electric Power Research Institute in 1973) where he has been responsible for research including fuel supply analysis and procurement; energy market behavior; electric industry restructuring; techniques for analyzing forward markets in energy and ancillary services; and the fundamentals driving the SO2 emission allowance market.

Mr. Platt is also involved with the Energy Minerals Division of the American Association of Petroleum Geologists and the Potential Gas Committee. He has lectured occasionally at Stanford University, and has made presentations on EPRI research to a variety of industry and academic groups.

Mr. Platt received an A.B. degree with concentration in economic geology from Harvard University (1971) and an M.S. in Geological Sciences from Stanford University (1974).

Abstract: Compliance Costs and Markets

The Title IV acid rain program is a well-recognized success leading to significant savings, esp. in

company flexibility, choices available for compliance, and competition that helped drive down prices. Touted for its flexibility, low administrative costs, invitation to innovation, and tangible cost savings, perhaps the most notable feature of the Title IV program to date has been the moderate stringency of required SO2 reductions during Phase I, providing supplies for trade and immediate use as well as for future use. This permitted non-technological options to play a role, fostering competition among lower-sulfur coals. The trading and banking provisions led to substantial overcompliance, with over half of such supplies derived from fuel switching according to MIT's definitive analysis of the first three years of Phase 1. Important too has been the coincident element of surprise, with changes in the energy infrastructure _ notably expansion of Powder River Basin coal _ favoring lower, not higher, compliance costs. Looking ahead, there is considerable uncertainty in stringency, costs of compliance and the pattern of SO2 allowance market prices due to political, legal and regulatory factors. Scrubbing and switching costs both declined beyond expectations, but one should be cautious about the repeatability of this trend. One area of continuing technological change is that of scrubbing systems geared to somewhat lower-sulfur coals or to better byproducts. A review of past compliance cost forecasts indicates they were not wildly off the mark, but the world they envisioned is being rewritten and will never be tested by future events. A second wave of 14,000 MW scrubbers is already under way for various reasons (5,600 MW built within the past two and one-half years), an amount as large as the Phase 1 fleet. One way the next decade will likely depart from prior expectations is that stringent measures requiring technology controls could lead to another disconnect between compliance costs and emission allowance prices, a disconnect beginning today. The retirement or sterilization of allowances under measures that could force technology controls is a key issue. A company example illustrates the magnitude of possible future compliance costs.

Richard Poirot (program)

Rich graduated from Dartmouth College in 1972. For the past 24 years, he's been employed as an Air Quality Planner with the Vermont Agency of Natural Resources. He currently serves on the Technical Committee of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program, the Monitoring and Assessment Committee of the Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM), the Steering Committee of the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE), the Subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation for the US/Canada Air Quality Agreement, and on the Acid Rain Data Exchange Workgroup for the Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers. He lives in Hyde Park, VT with his wife Betty and children Michael and Danielle.

Abstract: Impacts of Acid Rain in the Northeastern U.S.

In 1985, the New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers (NEG/ECP) adopted the New England / Eastern Canada Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Reduction Plan, which called for national SO2 emissions reductions of 50% from 1980 levels in both the US and Canada to be achieved by 1995. While this plan proposed substantial efficiency-based emissions controls in upwind regions, its key feature was a unilateral commitment to reduce local emissions (by about 35%) within the 11 NEG/ECP states and provinces, regardless of what transpired in upwind regions. National sulfur emissions reductions quite similar to those proposed in the NEG/ECP plan were subsequently required by the 1990 US Clean Air Act Amendments and similar control programs in Canada.

As these phased national control programs have largely run their courses, the NEG/ECP have re-visited the acid rain issue to evaluate the effectiveness of the control programs and have noted that regional deposition rates, aerosol concentrations and surface water concentrations of sulfate have declined in approximate proportion to SO2 emissions reductions. However nitrate deposition and concentrations have remained largely unchanged; base cation concentrations in deposition and surface waters have continued to decline: and there are few signs of biological recovery in acid sensitive ecosystems in the NEG/ECP region. New concerns have arisen over the continued loss of critical nutrients (Ca, Mg, K) from regional forest soils, and over the effects of nitrogen compounds on episodic acidification, ozone transport and eutrophication of coastal estuaries. New federal health standards for fine particles and requirements to reduce visibility impairment re-emphasize the importance of sulfate aerosols, which despite recent reductions, continue to account for about half of regional fine particle concentrations and 2/3 of the visibility impairment in the Northeast.

For these reasons, the Governors and Premiers have proposed a new NEG/ECP Acid Rain Control Plan in 1998. This plan calls for additional national emissions reductions of at least 50% SO2 and at least 25% NOx, and again includes a unilateral commitment to achieve a regional "fair share" of these reductions regardless of upwind actions. The plan emphasizes the importance of, and also initiates research, monitoring and data exchange activities to evaluate the multiple effects that result from combined emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. Additional assistance from federal agencies, industry and academia would be useful in the following areas:

  • consideration of the multiple environmental benefits that would accrue additional S & N controls,
  • open discussions of options for efficient/equitable distribution of future S & N emissions controls,
  • comprehensive continental-scale modeling to evaluate the multiple environmental benefits that would accrue from alternative levels (25, 50, 75%) of future SO2 and NOx emissions controls.

Fred Stoss (program)

Fred Stoss is the Biological Sciences Librarian in the Science and Engineering Library at the University at Buffalo. In addition to his Master in Library Science Degree, Fred holds undergraduate and graduate degrees in biology and zoology. He has more than 10 years of research experience in the area of environmental toxicology and nearly 20 years of experience in the area of information and library science. He is the past-chair of both the Environmental Information Division of the Special Libraries Association and the Task Force on the Environment of the American Library Association. He is on the adjunct faculty of the Department of Library and Information Studies at the University at Buffalo.

Abstract: Acid Rain Information Resources

Research programs on acid rain are creating large volumes of data. Researchers on similar problems, policy makers, educators and others are seeking additional information related to their interests. This 60 minute program will review significant printed matter, abstracting and indexing services, and Internet resources.

Mary F. Striegel (program)

Mary is the Environmental and Materials Research Program Director for the National Center for Preservation Technology and Training (NCPTT) Materials Research Program. Mary came to NCPTT in 1995 from the Getty Conservation Institute. Her past work has included studies of the effects of formaldehyde on inorganic materials, uses of Thin-layer Chromatography for the analysis of binding media, and applications of digital imaging and technical photography in the analysis of works of art. Mary earned her PhD in inorganic chemistry from Washington University in St. Louis, where she pursued interdisciplinary research on residual stresses in numismatics.

Abstract: Washing Away with the Rain: The effect of air pollution on limestone and marble

National Center for Preservation Technology and Training's Environmental and Materials Research program studies the effects of air pollution on cultural resources. Air pollution, generated from man-made sources through the burning of fossil fuels, can effect our nation's monuments, buildings and historic sites. The goals of our work include understanding how air pollution interacts with the material fabric of cultural resources and what we can do to minimize damage from air pollution. Our presentation will:

  • Highlight the effects of pollution on stone;
  • Focus on environmental conditions and material factors influencing deterioration;
  • Detail the experimental equipment and methodologies ; and
  • Discuss the recent results.

Brent Takemoto (program)

Brent Takemoto is an Air Pollution Research Specialist in the California Air Resources Board's Office of Community Health. His primary responsibilities include work related to the Board's Neighborhood Assessment Program, environmental justice issues, air quality in the eastern Sierra, and ozone effects on plants. Prior to joining the Office of Community Health, Brent was a contract manager in the Board's Research Division where he organized the forest ecosystems research program to evaluate the effects of acidic deposition and ozone on mixed conifer forests in southern California.

Brent received a Ph.D. in biology from Bowling Green State University in Bowling Green, Ohio. Prior to joining the Air Resources Board, he was a Postgraduate Researcher at the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center at the University of California, Riverside.

Abstract: Acidic Deposition in California: Key Research Findings & Monitoring Results

In California's acidic deposition program, monitoring networks were established, and research conducted in five program areas. Nitrogen-containing acids are more prominent in California atmospheres than in the East. An association between decreased rates of lung function growth and ambient nitrogen oxides, particulates, and nitric acid was found in children living in the most polluted communities in southern California. For watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, chronic lake acidification has not been observed, but episodic acidification occurs during snowmelt. Nitrogen saturation has occurred in selected forest watersheds in the San Bernardino Mountains, but effects on crops and materials appear to be minor.

Elizabeth Thorndike (program)

Elizabeth Thorndike is the founder of the Center for Environmental Information where she served as Executive Director from 1974-1992. She remains a member of the Board of Directors. She has served in public service positions under three New York governors: as a commissioner of the Adirondack Park Agency for fifteen and a half years; a member of the governors's Environmental Advisory Board for 10 years; and since 1997 as a member of the board of the NY State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), in the designated environmentalist appointment. She is currently a consultant on collaborative environmental problem-solving, a member of the advisory board of the Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, a Visiting Lecturer there in the Department of City and Regional Planning, and a trustee of the Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks. She has degrees from Stanford and Harvard and a Ph.D, with a concentration in Natural Resource Policy and Management, from Cornell.

Michael Uhart (program)

National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

Abstract: National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program Analysis

Richard A. Valentinetti (program)

B.S. in Environmental Health, University of Massachusetts; Master of Public Health in Public Health Administration, University of Michigan.

Mr. Valentinetti is the Director of the Air Pollution Control Program for the State of VT where he manages the state's air resources issues associated with an integrated natural resources/environmental protection program, with particular emphasis on the effects of municipal waste combustion on ambient air; monitoring and projections of acid deposition; chlorofluorocarbons; greenhouse gases; and emissions from wood stoves.

Previously Mr. Valentinetti has worked with the U.S. EPA, State of Vermont Air and Solid Waste Programs; National Air Pollution Control Administration (NAPCA), State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators (STAPPA); and North Eastern States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM).

Abstract: State/Local Legislative and Regulatory Role

Lunch and Guest Speakers (top)

Representative Sherwood L. Boehlert (program)

Sherwood L. Boehlert (R-New Hartford), chairman the House of Representatives Science Committee, is a senior member of Congress proud of his accomplishments at the national and local levels.

Boehlert was first elected to the House in November 1982 and is currently serving in his tenth consecutive term representing Central New York. In the 2000 election, he again won all nine counties and received a convincing 60% of the vote.

Boehlert has served on the Science Committee since 1983, and was elected Chairman in January 2001. The Committee has jurisdiction over all federal nonmilitary scientific and technology research and development programs, on which the federal government spends more than $30 billion a year. The Committee has jurisdiction over NASA, the National Science Foundation, and research and development initiatives within the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Commerce. In addition, the Committee has jurisdiction over civil aviation research and development and marine research.

Boehlert is the third-ranking member of the House Transportation and Infrastructure Committee, serving as Chairman of its Subcommittee on Water Resources and Environment from 1995 to 2000. He remains an active member of that Subcommittee. Boehlert also sits on the Subcommittee on Highways and Transit, and the Subcommittee on Railroads.

Boehlert was reappointed by House Speaker J. Dennis Hastert as a member of the Select Committee on Intelligence, where he is on the front line of important intelligence decisions faced by Congress. Boehlert is a delegate to the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, also at the appointment of the Speaker, where he serves as chairman of the Assembly's Scientific and Technology Committee.

Born on September 28, 1936 in Utica, New York, Boehlert is a graduate of Whitesboro Central High School and Utica College (Bachelor of Science, 1961). Before serving as Oneida County Executive (1979-83), he was manager of public relations at Wyandotte Chemical (1961-64) and served two years in the U.S. Army (1956-58).

Boehlert served as chief of staff for two area Congressmen, Alexander Pirnie (1964-72) and Donald Mitchell (1973-79), where he became intimately familiar with the people, places and issues of the 23rd District. In honor of his former boss, Boehlert was able to secure passage of legislation in 2000 to rename the Veterans' Outpatient Clinic in Rome as the "Donald J. Mitchell Department of Veterans Affairs Outpatient Clinic."

An avid New York Yankees fan and movie buff, Boehlert and his wife, Marianne (Willey) Boehlert, make their home in New Hartford, New York. They have four grown children and five grandchildren. When Congress is in session, he returns home each weekend to stay in touch with people he feels fortunate to represent in Washington.

The 23rd includes all or parts of Broome, Chenango, Delaware, Herkimer, Madison, Montgomery, Oneida, Otsego, and Schoharie counties.

Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton (program)

Hillary Rodham Clinton was elected United States Senator from New York on November 7, 2000. She is the first First Lady elected to the United States Senate and the first woman elected statewide in New York.

Senator Clinton has been an advocate for children and families for more than thirty years. She brings to the Senate the same commitment and energy that took her to each of New York State's 62 counties during her 16-month campaign.

To build a better future for working families, Hillary Rodham Clinton supported policies to expand the economy, raise the minimum wage and the earned income tax credit, increase tax deductions for children, and make credit more available, including microcredit loans for women entrepreneurs. Senator Clinton is dedicated to bringing jobs to Upstate New York. Through tax credits for small businesses, investments in telecommunications infrastructure, creating technology extension programs, skills training, restructuring utilities and lowering airfares to increase regional accessibility, she proposes to make it possible for the economy in upstate and all regions of New York to flourish and to stem the outmigration of young New Yorkers and their families.

Senator Clinton supports raising the inheritance tax exemption for family-owned farms and businesses to $1.75 million and also supports raising the unified credit exemption to one million dollars. Her proposals would create a new $650,00 exclusion ($1.3 million for married couples) from estate taxes for family farms and family business. This proposal enables more family-owned farms and businesses to pass on their estate to future generations.

Senator Clinton serves on the Budget, Environment and Public Works, and HELP (Health, Education, Labor and Pensions) Committees. These important committees are responsible for many issues that affect the residents of New York State. Addressing the Senate on the subject of the 2002 Federal Budget, Senator Clinton commented that, "We must pass a budget that keeps paying down the debt, provides sensible tax cuts and invests in priorities that matter to the people we represent."

Appointed by President Bill Clinton in 1993 to chair the Task Force on National Health Care, she and her task force members worked for months meeting with families and health care professionals. Their efforts culminated in the Health Security Act of 1994. Disappointed that the Task Force was unable to make more progress, she has said that the experience brought her to the "school of smaller steps," adding that "we must continue to make progress. It's still important that we increase access to quality health care for working families." As First Lady, she led the fight to pass the Children's Health Insurance Program that provides health insurance for millions of working families. She worked to increase funding for breast cancer research and treatment for breast cancer, prostate and colon cancer, osteoporosis and juvenile diabetes. She worked to pass strong anti-crime measures, including the Brady Bill and the Assault Weapons ban. Senator Clinton is a strong supporter of the HMO Patient's Bill of Rights and of action to strengthen Medicare and include prescription drug benefits. She advocates expanding federal funding for childhood vaccinations and diseases such as asthma and epilepsy. Health care was the topic of Senator Clinton's maiden speech in the Senate chamber.

Senator Clinton is recognized around the world as an advocate for democracy, religious tolerance and human rights, and as a champion for women and girls, emphasizing access to education, economic opportunity, family planning and women's right to choose. With her husband, former President Clinton, she has worked for peace in Northern Ireland, the Balkans and the Middle East. Her Vital Voices program has brought women together in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Europe to encourage their increased participation in economic and political decisions.

Born in Chicago, Illinois on October 26, 1947, Senator Clinton is the daughter of Dorothy Rodham and the late Hugh Rodham. She grew up in Park Ridge, Illinois and attended public school. She attended Wellesley College. A 1973 graduate of Yale Law School, Hillary Rodham Clinton was named one of the National Law Journal's 100 Most Influential Lawyers in America in both 1988 and 1991. She was appointed chair of the Legal Services Corporation by President Jimmy Carter in 1977, and served as chair of the American Bar Association Committee on Women in the profession in 1987. From 1986-1989, she chaired the board of the Children's Defense Fund.

In 1997, she wrote the best selling book It Takes a Village: and Other Lessons Children Teach Us. She contributed nearly $1 million of the author proceeds to charities dedicated to children and families. Proceeds from her book Dear Socks, Dear Buddy: Kids' Letters to the First Pets were given to the National Park Foundation. Her latest book, An Invitation to the White House, an immediate best seller, won critical praise as a tribute to the historic home of the nation's presidents and the families who have lived there. The White House Historical Association will receive the author proceeds of this book.

Senator Charles E. Schumer (program)

Charles E. Schumer is in his first term representing New York State. He currently serves as a member on the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs, the Judiciary Committee, the Energy and Natural Resources Committee and the Rules Committee. Before his election to the Senate, Schumer represented the Ninth Congressional District in Brooklyn and Queens for nine terms.

For the past two decades, Chuck Schumer has been a leader on national issues and a champion for New York State. For his efforts, the Rochester Democrat & Chronicle called Schumer "an accomplished, far-sighted legislator," while The New York Times wrote that Schumer "is a more serious lawmaker with more rooted values, sounder policy positions and a deeper commitment to the common good."

Armed with an impressive resume of accomplishments and an 18year House record, Chuck Schumer was elected to the Senate in 1998 _ one of only two Democrats to defeat a Senate incumbent that year.

Since his election to the Senate, Schumer has made improving New York's economy his top priority. He has been particularly successful in bringing affordable air service to Upstate New York, helping deliver new airline JetBlue to Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse and working with low-cost carrier Southwest Airlines to expand service to Albany.

Schumer also established an Economic Development Initiative (EDI), a comprehensive effort to attract new businesses and financial resources to Upstate New York. As part of EDI, Schumer has held business roundtables throughout the state, organized meetings between economic development officials and the site selectors who help businesses decide where to locate offices and factories, and sent a brochure promoting Upstate's merits to CEO's in New York City.

Improving access to quality education is another of Schumer's long-term priorities. He is leading the charge to make college tuition tax deductible for most American families and has developed a "Marshall Plan for Teachers," which would provide a series of incentives to attract the best and brightest to teaching.

Schumer is also working to ensure that all Americans have quality health care and access to affordable prescription drugs. He is currently fighting to restore hospital cuts inflicted by the 1997 Balanced Budget Act, provide seniors with a prescription drug benefit under Medicare, and knock down the barriers that delay low-cost generic medications from coming to the marketplace.

A member of the Banking committee in the House and the Senate, Schumer worked for a decade to pass the 1999 Financial Services Modernization legislation, which modernizes regulations governing the US banking, securities and insurance industries. He played a key role in drafting language to ensure that financial companies serve traditionally underserved areas and has exposed unequal lending practices of banks and predatory lending practices of subprime lenders in minority communities.

Throughout his 20 years in Congress, Schumer has been a pioneer in the fight against crime. His work in this area led Attorney General Janet Reno, the nation's top law enforcer, to state, "I have never met a public official more dedicated to fighting crime than Mr. Schumer."

Schumer sponsored and helped pass the Omnibus Crime Bill of 1994, which put 100,000 new cops on the street, enforced "three strikes and you're out" sentencing, and created after school programs for troubled teens. As of August 2000, the Crime Bill's COPS program had put 11,461 new officers on New York's streets.

Schumer has also worked to keep guns out of the hands of criminals and children. He authored the 1993 Brady Bill, which instituted mandatory background checks for handgun purchases, and the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban. In the Senate, Schumer won the first federal funding for Albany, Buffalo, Syracuse and Rochester to implement Project Exile, a program that enforces strict sentencing guidelines for illegal gun possession.

To protect a woman's right to choose, Schumer wrote the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act, which makes blockading family planning clinics a federal crime. He also authored the Violence Against Women Act, the first federal legislation protecting women from domestic abuse, and has been a leader in the fight against hate crimes and terrorism.

Schumer has also had a powerful effect on a wideranging number of issues, including:

Consumers: The "Schumer Box," enacted in 1988, requires that credit card companies clearly inform consumers of their terms.

Immigration: Schumer forged an agreement in 1986 that resulted in an overhaul of the immigration system.

AIDS: Schumer authored the Housing Opportunities for People with AIDS Law.

Israel: Schumer is a staunch advocate for our Middle East ally and has been a leader in bringing restitution to Holocaust survivors and their families.

A product of the Brooklyn public schools, Schumer, 50, is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Law School. He was elected to the New York State Assembly at age 23, one of the youngest members since Theodore Roosevelt, and to Congress at 29. Schumer upset Al D'Amato to become New York's junior Senator in 1998.

Senator Schumer lives in Brooklyn with his wife, Iris Weinshall, and their daughters, Jessica and Alison.

Representative John E. Sweeney (program)

John E. Sweeney was sworn-in as a member of the 106th Congress on January 6, 1999. In his first term as a representative, Congressman Sweeney quickly distinguished himself among his colleagues. He was appointed to the Republican Steering Committee, also known as the Committee on Committees, by his fellow freshman congressmen to appoint Members of Congress to posts on the House of Representatives' 20 committees.

Congressman Sweeney now serves on the House Appropriations Committee. He has been assigned to the Subcommittees on Transportation and Related Agencies, Treasury Postal and General Government, and the District of Columbia.

Before becoming an elected representative, John Sweeney served for more than two years as New York State Commissioner of Labor where he gave the Labor Department a more pro-active role throughout the state and the nation. His efforts focused on reducing burdensome government regulations on businesses and stimulating economic growth while protecting the interests of the state's workforce.

Congressman Sweeney has built a reputation as a pro-active legislator on environmental issues in the House of Representatives. His most recent legislative initiative—the Acid Rain Control Act—represents one of the most comprehensive bills currently seeking to address the acid rain crisis plaguing the northeastern United States. The Acid Rain Control Act is viewed by many as a significant step towards reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions by power plants and returning forests and waterways to non-acidic levels. In 2000, Mr. Sweeney successfully advanced legislation reauthorizing the Clean Lakes Program at the Environmental Protection Agency and has secured funding for acid rain monitoring.

Congressman Sweeney is a native of Troy, New York where his father was president of a local shirt-cutters union. After working his way through college, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree from Russell Sage College. The following year, he was appointed head of the Rensselaer County DWI prevention program that, under his direction, became the most successful program of its type in New York State. He continued working while studying law, and earned his law degree from Western New England School of Law. After completing his law degree he was selected as Executive Director and Chief Counsel to the New York State Republican Party.

John Sweeney currently resides in Clifton Park, New York. He is actively involved in many civic and community organizations.

Steering Committee (top)

Ed Bennett - New York State Department of Environmental Conservation

Christopher Bernabo - Collaborative Solutions, Inc.

Rona Birnbaum & Richard Haeuber - U.S. EPA

Kathleen Fallon Lambert - Hubbard Brook Research Foundation

Leonard Levin - EPRI

Bernard Melewski - Adirondack Council

Mark Nilles - U.S. Geological Survey

Elizabeth Thompson - Environmental Defense

Michael Uhart - National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

James C. White & Elizabeth Thorndike - Center for Environmental Information

Funding Co-Sponsors (top)

Adirondack Council

Cornell University Center for the Environment

Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada / Ministère des Affaires Étrangères et du Commerce International du Canada

Edison Electric Institute

Environment Canada / Environnement Canada

Environmental Defense

EPRI

Keyspan Foundation

National Wildlife Federation

New York Power Authority

New York State Adirondack Park Agency

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, Division of Air Resources

New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

Niagara Mohawk

State University of New York College of Environmental Science & Forestry

U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Air Resources Division

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, PRIMENet

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Clean Air Markets Division

U.S. Geological Survey

World Resources Institute

Cooperating Co-Sponsors (top)

Adirondack Mountain Club

Air & Waste Management Association

American Fisheries Society

American Gas Association

American Hiking Society

American Institute of Biological Sciences

American Lung Association

American Sportfishing Association

Appalachian Mountain Club

Appalachian Voices

Association for the Protection of the Adirondacks

Center for Clean Air Policy

Citizens Campaign for the Environment

Clean Air Network

Clean Air Task Force

Conference of New England Governors and Eastern Canadian Premiers

Ecological Society of America

Environment & Energy Study Institute

Hubbard Brook Research Foundation

Izaak Walton League of America

National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program

National Audubon Society

National Council for Science and the

Environment

National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Air Resources Laboratory

National Trust for Historic Preservation

Natural Resources Defense Council

Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use

Management

RAND Corporation

Residents' Committee to Protect the Adirondacks

Resources for the Future

Save Outdoor Sculpture!

Trout Unlimited

Union of Concerned Scientists


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